The fabrication of metal is divided into several parts like:
Forging: It involves plastic deformation of the work piece by compressive forces. Crankshafts, connecting rods, gears, bolt heads etc., are made by forging.
Rolling: It is a process of reducing the thickness of a long work piece by compressive forces using a set of rolls.
Extrusion: During extrusion billets are forced through one or more dies by a compressive force that is applied to a ram.
Drawing: Drawing is a process of forming sheet metal into shapes such as cups and trays.
Deep Drawing: is a type of drawing where the depth of the part can be greater than its diameter.
Bending: The workpiece is bent to form flanges, contours, curls, seams, corrugations and other geometries by means of applying force through hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical machines.
Spinning: It is a process of forming axially symmetrical shapes.
Shearing can be of different types:
Conventional shearing, Turret Punching and blanking.
Fabrication is as an industrial term. It is concerned with machines and other equipments. It is done by building of machines, cutting, shaping and assembling components which are made from raw materials. It refers to building of machines, structures or other material.
Steel fabrication refers to the cutting process; it is designed for design as well as for various components. Fabrication shops are employed by contractors like an OEM.
Typical project includes loose parts, structural frames for buildings and heavy equipment, and hand railings and stairs for buildings. In metal fabricators standard raw materials are used such as plate material, formed and expanded metal, tube stock as well as square stock, welding wire, casting as well as fittings. The general way to cut the material is shearing. Special types of cutting saws are made for cutting of metal .The band saw is a powerful tool used for cutting metals. It produces homogeneous cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load. They are used for cutting of metal, wood and other materials. Different band saws are used for different purpose.
The molding of metal refers to change the raw material and give a new shape. There are different metal fabrication methods and it depends upon the temperature when the metal is molded, whether the room temperature is warm or hot. Material removal is the process of metal fabrication. In this process the cutting tool is used.
The process of transforming stock metal forms into a desired product is called metal fabrication. Metal fabrication includes a range of processes including metal cutting, forming, welding, bending, and finishing. Cutting refers to make some new shape of the sheet by removing some unwanted material from the sheet. The process of cutting are stamping, shearing, sawing, drilling, blanking and punching. These are referred to as the cutting processes.
Structural fabrication is for construction of buildings and bridges. Skills for welders are regulated by the American Welding Society. The skills and practices used in steel construction are defined by the AISC or the American Institute of Steel Construction. Cutting torches and abrasive wheels are used most commonly in the fabrication industry because they are easy to use and transport. Plasma tables, laser cutters, water jet beds, and other types of stationary equipment are much less common, but can produce impressive results with incredible tolerances. Computer based equipments like Computer Numerical Control Punch Press or Computer Numerical Control Lasers may also be used.