After the layer is cured, the machine vacuums up the excess liquid resin and sprays wax in its place to support the model during the build. The top surface is milled flat, and then the process repeats to build the next layer. When the part is complete, it must be de-waxed by immersing it in a solvent bath. SGC machines are distributed in the U. S. by Cubical America Inc. of Troy, MI. The machines are quite big and can produce large models.Replica Audemars Piguet Watches
Ink-Jet Printing refers to an entire class of machines that employ ink-jet technology. The first was 3D Printing (3DP), developed at MIT and licensed to Soligen Corporation, Extrude Hone, and others. The ZCorp 3D printer, produced by Z Corporation of Burlington, MA is an example of this technology. As shown in Fig. 14. 5 (a), parts are built upon a platform situated in a bin full of powder material. An ink-jet printing head selectively deposits or 'prints' a binder fluid to fuse the powder together in the desired areas. Unbound powder remains to support the part. The platform is lowered, more powder added and leveled, and the process repeated. When finished, the green part is then removed from the unbound powder, and excess unbound powder is blown off. Finished parts can be infiltrated with wax, CA glue, or other sealants to improve durability and surface finish. Typical layer thicknesses are on the order of 0. 1mm. This process is very fast, and produces parts with a slightly grainy surface. ZCorp uses two different materials, a starch based powder (not as strong, but can be burned out, for investment casting applications) and a ceramic powder. Machines with 4 color printing capability are available.
3D Systems' version of the ink-jet based system is called the Thermo-Jet or Multi-Jet Printer. It uses a linear array of print heads to rapidly produce thermoplastic models. If the part is narrow enough, the print head can deposit an entire layer in one pass. Otherwise, the head makes several passes.
Sanders Prototype of Wilton, NH uses a different ink-jet technique in its Model Maker line of concept modelers. The machines use two ink-jets. One dispenses low-melt thermoplastic to make the model, while the other prints wax to form supports. After each layer, a cutting tool mills the top surface to uniform height. This yields extremely good accuracy, allowing the machines to be used in the jewelry industry. To make prototypes for communication and testing purposes. Prototypes dramatically improve communication because most people, including engineers, find three-dimensional objects easier to understand than two-dimensional drawings. Such improved understanding leads to substantial cost and time savings. As Pratt & Whitney executive Robert P. DeLisle noted: 'We've seen an estimate on a complex product drop by $ 100, 000 because people who had to figure out the nature of the object from 50 blueprints could now see it.' Effective communication is especially important in this era of concurrent engineering. By exchanging prototypes early in the design stage, manufacturing can start tooling up for production while the art division starts planning the packaging, all before the design is finalized.
Prototypes are also useful for testing a design, to see if it performs as desired or needs improvement. Engineers have always tested prototypes, but RP expands their capabilities. First, it is now easy to perform iterative testing: build a prototype, test it, redesign, build and test, etc. Such an approach would be far too time-consuming using traditional prototyping techniques, but it is easy using RP.
In addition to being fast, RP models can do a few things metal prototypes cannot For example, Porsche used a transparent stereo lithography model of the 911 GTI transmission housing to visually study oil flow. Seneca, a French turbo machinery producer, performed photo elastic stress analysis on a SLA model of a fan wheel to determine stresses in the blades.Replica Seiko Watches
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